in Managed Care
Rita Y. Allen
Medical Ethics for Health
Care Organizations have evolved out of necessity. The drive to redirect consumerism
of the medical profession back to the best interest of the patient demands some specifics in marketing ethics. The present-day relationship between health professionals and pharmaceutical companies is headed for disaster. The pharmaceutical companies are buying our doctors with a sample and the doctors
are medicating America like robots of the pharmaceutical companies. Something must change, and quickly
three decades have witnessed a dynamic growth in marketing and consequently, a strong need for new marketing ethics guidelines. At the forefront of this need are the pharmaceutical companies who have made a very
lucrative business out of the business of marketing. The techniques they have
used, and are using, present a number of ethical problems for the healthcare professional and the patient. Managers in the industry do realize the severity of the problems, but have been almost helpless to change
the direction of this steam-filled train headed downhill. This paper explores how this is taking place and brings awareness
to how we might change our course of direction.
to Dr. Joseph Rohan Lex, Jr., MD (2003), assistant professor of emergency medicine at Temple University School of Medicine,
the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical marketing representatives “results in inevitable and irreconcilable
conflicts of interest” at which the patients are ultimately the losers. The
fiduciary position that physicians hold, demands that they not be bought with free pen or pad.
That position means that they hold a position of trust, avoiding positions of conflict of interest. Drug companies are the most profitable business in the world using techniques of the subconscious that
“capture free advertising space on our shirt, our coffee mug, our pen, our notepad, our stethoscope.” The reason they use these techniques is because they work. Doctor’s
don’t want to admit it, but they seem to be subjects of a marketing technique that is unavoidable and unconscious. Physicians write prescriptions. Healthcare
costs are rising at about 10% a year and the largest segment of that is the cost of drugs. Why wouldn’t the pharmaceutical
companies want to woo the physicians! Conflict of interest is where the influence
of a primary interest is unduly influenced by the influence of a second interest. A
standard procedure of academic programs around the country is to allow a drug company to purchase the lunch for a faculty
lecture giving them the opportunity to stand in front of the group and demonstrate their product. Recordings were made of these demonstrations revealing a startling number of inaccurate statements. All of the inaccurate statement favored the drug companies (Lex, 2003).
quotes the Widener Law Symposium Journal of 2001 as saying, “Conflicts of interest are institutional weeds. They take
root below the surface; they become pervasive problems long before they show their ugliness.” For this very purpose, in my present position at an upscale retirement community (where almost every resident
is independently wealthy) no employee or associate is allowed to receive any tip, ever, nor are they allowed to receive anything
of value. Free gifts can buy many intangible things. According to Dr. Lex the drug companies are subconsciously leading our nation’s physicians down a
fatal road of the medicating of America. Not only do the doctors not have a problem receiving freebies, even textbooks, golf
balls, free lunch, happy hour…they have come to expect it (Lex, 2003).
For all industries in the United States the percent of revenue median profit has been
between 2% and 5%. The drug companies profit percent of revenue is 19%, and it
is going up every year. We have bought into this insatiable bottomless pit and
we are paying the price. 39% of the cost of drug expenditures going up each year
is due to physicians writing more prescriptions. We are a medicated society;
we want a quick, simple fix. Many Americans do not want to pay the price of self
discipline and altered lifestyle to bring health to their body; they want to take a pill.
They want a name given to their illness so they can feel special. That’s
why the medical profession’s DSM manual is about four inches think today. The
first DSM manual was not quite ¼ inch thick. Additionally, the doctor really doesn’t want to spend the time to labor
over the working process of bringing forth the optimum life when they can write a prescription in 15 seconds (Lex, 2003).
A study was done giving a group of 35 doctors
a series of hypothetical scenarios such as uncomplicated urinary tract infection, high blood pressure and depression. Ninety percent of the doctors agreed on the treatment medication to begin with. Then the drug companies came in giving samples of freebies of a more expensive medication
for the same illness. 32 of those 35 doctors gave the more expensive samples
than the inexpensive drug that said they would have started the patient on. They
never switched back to the less expensive drug, which would probably have alleviated the problem as well. Drug companies freely provide samples because they know physician’s behavior. Additionally, half of the drug reps are handing out drugs to nonphysicians and 26% of them are swapping
drugs with other drug reps. What ethics?
According to the pharmaceutical promotional magazine,
Script, there are four different kinds of doctors. There are specific
instructions of how to approach each category of doctors because the approach is different for each one. The categories are: (1) the sheep who are interested in conforming. (2) The wolves who are interested in
making money. (3) The bunnies who really do like to take care of sick people. (4) The “dodos” that are burned
out and only in it for survival. This brings up the subject of promotional honesty. A study was done over a seven-month period of all the materials left behind or mailed
to physicians by drug companies. 42% of this material failed to comply with at
least one of the FDA regulations (Lex, 2003).
This unethical marketing even extends to celebrity
endorsement. If Brad Pitt takes this drug then I should take it too so I will,
hopefully, be more like Brad Pitt. It’s psychological and subconscious
and Gruen (2005), propose four principles: (1) provide care with compassion,
(2) treat employees with respect, (3) act in a public spirit, (4) spend resources reasonably.
With these four principles, medical ethics becomes more feasible although not as simply as it is written on paper. For example, physicians have a responsibility to their patients while organizations
have a responsibility to their whole healthcare population. This ethics responsibility
has many levels. As usual, organizations are more prone to promote ethical behavior
if their leaders encourage and model that behavior. A key component is to openly
reward ethical behavior and discipline the unethical behavior (Winkler & Gruen, 2005).
Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is responsible for much of the recent organizational ethics
in the healthcare industry. A wide variety of programs have been developed including
formal procedures for addressing an organization’s ethical problems, combining ethics and compliance programs, developing
processes to clarify the organization’s behavior, training of ethical behavior and offering feedback on ethical performance
(Winkler & Gruen, 2005).
1, 2002, a new marketing code took effect. This code, designed by
the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), was to stop gifts and dinners to doctors and their staff. It was even going to stop cash give-always.
Trouble was, there was no accountability to the code; it was voluntary. Dr.
Samuel Packer, MD, a Long Island, NY ophthalmologist (chair of the ethics committee of the
of Ophthalmology) states that the reason for the new code was two-fold. First,
it was to help end criticism of drug companies whose marketing techniques had
developed into predominantly
cash and gift incentives, and secondly, as an attempt to self-regulate in an effort to try to keep the government from regulating. Dr. Packer was concerned that the new code lacked teeth because it was voluntary. He was right. Because of the federal
anti-trust law, the new code could not be made mandatory. The code was quite
specific. “Companies should generally not provide entertainment or recreational
activities to healthcare professionals. Thus, companies should not invite healthcare professionals to sporting events, concerts,
or shows, or provide them with recreational activities such as hunting, fishing, boating, ski trips, or golf outings, even
if those entertainment events or recreational activities are used to facilitate informational interchanges between the [pharmaceutical]
company representative and the healthcare professional.” It’s sad
that we have to have a code to tell our physicians not to allow these things to affect the quality of treatment they deliver
to those who have entrusted their lives to them (Nozar, 2002).
much information about the four P’s in marketing: Product, Price, Place,
and Promotion. Little has been said about the E of marketing, which is Ethics. We are inundated today by the stories of where ethics is no longer a requirement for
leadership. Many healthcare organizations have adopted ethical behavior guidelines
for membership. Healthcare Industry marketing guidelines have been developed by many organizations, including the American
Hospital Association. These guidelines have addressed issues such as using actors
and models rather than real patients and staff; avoidance of making unsupported claims and creating unrealistic expectations;
and the avoidance of creating demand for unnecessary services. These guidelines
also propose physician referrals
assuring that the patient is
placed in the best location for their care. Ultimately, marketing is not simply for generating greater demand, in the healthcare
industry, it is for meeting the needs of those in need. Marketing is viewed by
healthcare providers as a method of expanding or creating demand for services. As
new services are offered that will truly benefit the community, the marketing is very valid and beneficial. When marketing turns to creating a demand for services that are redundant or less than what they project
to be, then the practice becomes unethical (Gershon & Buerstatte, 2003)
are now establishing a newly-developed position within their company called the CPO (Chief Privacy Officer). The American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA) has already endorsed its support of the
position in the areas of healthcare and patient records. This position was developed
as a result of necessary control of the right and wrong ways to use personal information.
Many firms are finding that having a CPO is really good business as the CPO helps them create effective marketing strategies
that adhere to all privacy laws. The position of CPO must be highly qualified
in the areas of technology, law, ethics and information. They must also have
the ability to effectively work with the marketing group of the organization where, in the past, the “bottom-line”
was the focus of the marketing group. Probably the most important component of
the CPO position is monitoring the information systems of the company ensuring safety and privacy for all involved. A CPO’s position will also include training staff on privacy issues and working with governmental
agencies. One of the main responsibilities is devising marketing strategies that
ensure the customers privacy. This is a monumental feat considering that customers
desire a high level of
personal service while consequently
maintaining privacy. This combination of the right of privacy with the right
of access to information by all involved in the healing process can be tricky. The
key direction for the CPO in marketing ethics is to maximize service and eliminate privacy risks (Pemberton, 2002).
of the establishment for many of the privacy laws today comes from the angry outcry of the public concerning companies that
trade or sell their information to other companies. The CPO must have the knowledge
and intuition that although some actions may not be illegal, they could certainly be unethical. Additionally, what is unethical today may be illegal tomorrow. The
CPO must anticipate privacy problems within the technology now in use. As we
move toward a value-based system, customers will look for organizations that are committed to the protection of their privacy. The CPO is a now established vital cog in that wheel of service (Pemberton, 2002).
Healthcare providers have been pushed from the
coexistence of the past into aggressive competition. Fewer patients, fewer acute
care beds filled, and fewer reimbursement dollars have forced hospitals and physicians to market their services like any other
commercial sellers; but have they crossed the ethical lines in the process? In
the article, Taking the Train to a World of Strangers: health care marketing and ethics, the question is asked if the
marketing of healthcare can be a “moral exemption for business?” Can
healthcare providers take a train to a place where the relationship of healthcare professional and patient is “only
casual or commercial?” We are so close to
this today. In most businesses, it is not unethical to conduct transactions at arm’s length, but in the industry
of healthcare where the assumption is made that all decisions and transactions have the best interest of the patient at heart,
the ethical indications are somewhat different than most businesses. Ms. Schore
sees patients as being different than other consumerism in three distinct ways. First
of all, the ill or injured are in a position of vulnerability and dependability. They
generally do not possess the knowledge of how to heal themselves and they depend upon the skill of a provider to restore them
to health. For the most part, they are also unable to judge the quality of medical
care they receive. Secondly, a patient’s quality of life and even life
itself is in the hands of the provider. A patient frequently discloses intimate
information in order to facilitate recovery. Thirdly, the history of the healing
relationship between doctor and patient leads the patient to trust that the doctor has their very best interest at heart. They do not perceive, nor believe, that a doctor will recommend open-heart surgery
for the sole purpose of making money. Providers are ethically obligated to put
the health of the patient first. Those who are sick have no way of judging the
effectiveness of treatment as they do the effectiveness of deodorant. Marketing
ethics is very different in the world of healthcare than it is in the world of other consumerism (Nelson, Clark, Goldman &
A Fiduciary Model for Healthcare Marketing Ethics
is necessary. This model projects that marketing representatives should be held
to the same ethical standards as are the providers. “The main characteristics of this model concern the primacy of the
patient's good, the avoidance of unnecessary services, high standards of honesty and
accuracy, and public accountability.” Healthcare marketing should place the patient’s good above that of the provider’s
economic advantage. In the world of most commercial marketing, the method of operation is to “create” the need or desire for a product where the
need or desire was not present, but in the world of healthcare marketing this is unethical.
Some years ago a Nevada hospital stimulated occupancy
by offering discount rates and a weekly drawing for a free vacation cruise. Unethical. The burden lies with the provider for high standards of honesty and accuracy. It should not be the patient’s responsibility to weed through misleading information
to find the truth. An example of this was where a hospital advertised that it
was “more than a safe place to have your baby.” This particular hospital
did not even have a newborn intensive care unit making it an unsafe place for a critically ill newborn. Unethical. A physician may attempt to recoup some of his losses
for discounting services by performing unnecessary or marginal services. Unethical. There is a legitimate place for marketing in healthcare as long as it ethical (Nelson,
et al., 1989).
because marketing practices of pharmaceutical companies had become quite controversial, the American Medical Association (AMA)
developed guidelines regarding appropriate interactions between pharmaceutical companies and the medical community. At that time, the pharmaceutical industry was spending between $5,000 and $6,000 per year per physician
on product promotion. There was great concern that residents would have difficulty
dealing objectively with the barrage of literature and enticements they would encounter (Brotzman & Mark, 1992).
the pharmaceutical industry spent $21 Billon on promotion. $18.4 Billion of that
was direct marketing to physicians. In 2004, there were approximately 600,000
practicing physicians in the United States,
meaning that the drug companies were spending $30,000 per year, per physician in materials promotions. Twelve percent of the drug company revenue goes to research and development. 30 percent goes to marketing and administration. They combine
these two together to disguise the massive percentage that actually goes to marketing (Lex, 2003).
a study was done where directors of all 386 programs listed in the reprint of Accredited Graduate Residency Programs in Family
Practice of the American Academy
of Family Physicians (AAFP) were surveyed. Inquiries were made about seven types
of interactions between pharmaceutical representatives and residents. The seven
categories were: (1) contact during working hours, (2) complimentary clinic drug
samples, (3) drug samples for resident's personal use, (4) displays at residency activities or clinic sites, (5) distribution
of literature, (6) gifts and social events, and (7) group presentations. 42%
of the residency programs had no written policy in any of the seven activities; therefore, they had no guidelines and were
free to accept anything they chose. Additionally, the programs that did have
guidelines were more concerned about regulating access and information than gifts. Our
residents are being programmed to receive gifts from the pharmaceutical companies from the beginning of residency (Brotzman,
The article, Health as a Consumer Product,
written by Shahin Chandrasoma (2001), cuts right through to the bone with his assertions
that, “There is no money in
curing disease. There is money
in mass-producing medication.” The reason we are supposed to have pharmaceuticals
is to cure illness and disease; no longer. The pharmaceutical industry has become
the modern-day Beowulf, demanding “blood” wherever he goes. Mr. Chandrasoma
calls it “disease-ism” elaborating on how they pick and chose which drug products to develop based on consumerism,
not based on need. For example, there is a plethora of drugs to treat allergies,
hair loss and erectile dysfunction, but none to treat fatality in preterm labor. The
drug companies feel that the percentage of preterm labor is too small for research (will not produce enough profit). Many times physicians have no choice but to use outdated or untested drugs on pregnant
women. He likens it to performing breast enhancements but ignoring the
breast cancer. On the other hand because every male with a Y chromosome is a
candidate for Viagra, much research and development, and marketing has been invested, rendering very high profits (Chandrasoma,
The government has taken a wonderful step in
the right direction by offering incentives to pharmaceutical companies to develop research treatments of rare diseases. It is called the Orphan Drug Act and can be accessed at http://www.fda.gov/orphan/oda.htm. According to Mr. Chandrasoma it is too late
for us to reverse the trend of increasing consumerized mass marketing. He feels
that the government will have to further step in with laws and regulations to equalize the trend. The drug industry has taken discrimination to higher level; discrimination based on your disease. Let’s face it; according to the drug industry it is more important for a man
have an erection than to save
the lives of those individuals with rare diseases (Chandrasoma, 2001).
Advertisement can be very positively powerful…and
truthful! The very first, and most important aspect of marketing is educating
the public. Patients are the most powerful marketing tool. If they are treated well, they can reach folks that would be impossible to otherwise reach. They need a full understanding of all the services offered by their physician. If they don’t know he treats acne, they may seek out a dermatologist.
If they don’t know he enjoys seeing children, they may seek out a pediatrician.
Education is primary. Some ways to accomplish this is by mass mailing,
email newsletters, brochures in the office, signs and banners in the waiting room, trade shows, seminars, keynote speeches,
ads and much more. Another way is to take a survey of the current patients asking
them about expanded services that might be important to them, such as extended hours, treadmill testing, sports physicals,
etc. Make use of every possible opportunity to send welcomes, congratulations
and best wishes, such as new patient, happy birthday, new baby, graduation, etc. Always
send out reminders. Patients will equate that kind of organization with healthcare
organization. They will also equate waiting room/bathroom cleanliness with healthcare
cleanliness. Cleanliness and order are tremendous advertisements. Pay attention
to how difficult it is for the patient to actually see the doctor. Is there difficulty
parking? Is there a long walk to the door?
Are there too many forms to fill out? Are they left too long unattended? As for large scale advertising, perhaps the physician might consider billboards, newspaper
pages, radio ads and TV ads. In large scale marketing, it is very important to identify the target audience (Giovino,
and organizational aspects of healthcare are the prime focus of Leonard Weber’s book:
Business Ethics in Healthcare: Beyond Compliance. It deals with business ethics issues including conflicts of interest, employment, mergers, advertising
and environmental issues. Mr. Weber distinguishes the difference between health
care organizations and other organizations because of the commitment to patients’ rights and health services. He is in full agreement with our class textbook authors, Porter and Teisberg, that good quality healthcare
can be the most economical. I am not so sure that Ms. Werhane, the author of
this article, has the same views as the author as she asserts that his “rights of individual patients seem to trump
in almost all cases.” Although she states at the end of the article that
Mr. Weber has written a worthwhile book, she further states that this “preoccupation with individual rights” might
work in a perfect world, but, in essence, not ours. Isn’t this what healthcare
is all about? (Werhane, 2002).
I would like to quote from a previous post of mine. “The patient’s
health and well being has long been far from the center of the focus. Porter
and Teisberg understand that the only way for our system to truly be turned around is to bring the patient back to the center
of the focus…With the dollar sign at the center of our health care system, we are symbolic of a train headed downhill. Unless actions are taken to drive the physicians
to value-based, positive-sum competition, our train will surely wreck. This seems
like such a monumental task as it must be enabled by each provider individually. What
do can we do to motivate providers to this new, unselfish place? What do we do
to motivate providers to work together for the sole purpose of facilitating health to all those who are sick (while truly
believing in the payback of a value-based system)? A few people who are willing
to say no more crossed purposes and publicly implement the value-based competition could change the world.”
conclusion, I would like to make a vivid analogy of the ethical marketing complications of the healthcare system in today’s
world. It is much like endometriosis. Like
a complex interconnecting spider web, this disease works silently and painfully until is takes over the human body, eventually
to the point of death if not stopped. There is no cure for it, however, there
is one thing that will stop its growth; that is childbirth. Sometimes childbirth
will kill the growth of endometriosis for life. Until America conceives and labors over new life in our healthcare system, the web of
destruction will continue to grow.
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